A Likert scale (pronounced /ˈlɪkərt/,[1] also /ˈlaɪkərt/) is a psychometric scale commonly used in questionnaires, and is the most widely used scale in survey research, such that the term is often used interchangeably with rating scale even though the two are not synonymous. When responding to a Likert questionnaire item, respondents specify their level of agreement to a statement. The scale is named after its inventor, psychologist Rensis Likert.[2]

Sample question presented using a five-point Likert item

An important distinction must be made between a Likert scale and a Likert item. The Likert scale is the sum of responses on several Likert items. Because Likert items are often accompanied by a visual analog scale (e.g., a horizontal line, on which a subject indicates his or her response by circling or checking tick-marks), the items are sometimes called scales themselves. This is the source of much confusion; it is better, therefore, to reserve the term Likert scale to apply to the summated scale, and Likert item to refer to an individual item.

A Likert item is simply a statement which the respondent is asked to evaluate according to any kind of subjective or objective criteria; generally the level of agreement or disagreement is measured. Often five ordered response levels are used, although many psychometricians advocate using seven or nine levels; a recent empirical study[3] found that a 5- or 7- point scale may produce slightly higher mean scores relative to the highest possible attainable score, compared to those produced from a 10-point scale, and this difference was statistically significant. In terms of the other data characteristics, there was very little difference among the scale formats in terms of variation about the mean, skewness or kurtosis.

The format of a typical five-level Likert item is:

1. Strongly disagree

2. Disagree

3. Neither agree nor disagree

4. Agree

5. Strongly agree

Likert scaling is a bipolar scaling method, measuring either positive or negative response to a statement. Sometimes a four-point scale is used; this is a forced choice method[citation needed] since the middle option of "Neither agree nor disagree" is not available.

Likert scales may be subject to distortion from several causes. Respondents may avoid using extreme response categories (central tendency bias); agree with statements as presented (acquiescence bias); or try to portray themselves or their organization in a more favorable light (social desirability bias). Designing a scale with balanced keying (an equal number of positive and negative statements) can obviate the problem of acquiescence bias, since acquiescence on positively keyed items will balance acquiescence on negatively keyed items, but central tendency and social desirability are somewhat more problematic.

Scoring and analysis

After the questionnaire is completed, each item may be analyzed separately or in some cases item responses may be summed to create a score for a group of items. Hence, Likert scales are often called summative scales.

Whether individual Likert items can be considered as interval-level data, or whether they should be considered merely ordered-categorical data is the subject of disagreement. Many regard such items only as ordinal data, because, especially when using only five levels, one cannot assume that respondents perceive all pairs of adjacent levels as equidistant. On the other hand, often (as in the example above) the wording of response levels clearly implies a symmetry of response levels about a middle category; at the very least, such an item would fall between ordinal- and interval-level measurement; to treat it as merely ordinal would lose information. Further, if the item is accompanied by a visual analog scale, where equal spacing of response levels is clearly indicated, the argument for treating it as interval-level data is even stronger.

When treated as ordinal data, Likert responses can be collated into bar charts, central tendency summarised by the median or the mode (but some would say not the mean), dispersion summarised by the range across quartiles (but some would say not the standard deviation), or analyzed using non-parametric tests, e.g. chi-square test, Mann–Whitney test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, or Kruskal–Wallis test.[4] Parametric analysis of ordinary averages of Likert scale data is also justifiable by the Central Limit Theorem, although some would disagree that ordinary averages should be used for Likert scale data.

Responses to several Likert questions may be summed, providing that all questions use the same Likert scale and that the scale is a defendable approximation to an interval scale, in which case they may be treated as interval data measuring a latent variable. If the summed responses fulfill these assumptions, parametric statistical tests such as the analysis of variance can be applied. These can be applied only when more than 5 Likert questions are summed.[citation needed]

Data from Likert scales are sometimes reduced to the nominal level by combining all agree and disagree responses into two categories of "accept" and "reject". The chi-square, Cochran Q, or McNemar test are common statistical procedures used after this transformation.

Consensus based assessment (CBA) can be used to create an objective standard for Likert scales in domains where no generally accepted standard or objective standard exists. Consensus based assessment (CBA) can be used to refine or even validate generally accepted standards.

Level of measurement

The five response categories are often believed to represent an Interval level of measurement. But this can only be the case if the intervals between the scale points correspond to empirical observations in a metric sense. In fact, there may also appear phenomena which even question the ordinal scale level. For example, in a set of items A,B,C rated with a Likert scale circular relations like A>B, B>C and C>A can appear. This violates the axiom of transitivity for the ordinal scale.

Rasch model

Likert scale data can, in principle, be used as a basis for obtaining interval level estimates on a continuum by applying the polytomous Rasch model, when data can be obtained that fit this model. In addition, the polytomous Rasch model permits testing of the hypothesis that the statements reflect increasing levels of an attitude or trait, as intended. For example, application of the model often indicates that the neutral category does not represent a level of attitude or trait between the disagree and agree categories.

Again, not every set of Likert scaled items can be used for Rasch measurement. The data has to be thoroughly checked to fulfill the strict formal axioms of the model.

Pronunciation

Rensis Likert, the developer of the scale, pronounced his name 'lick-urt' with a short "i" sound.[5][6] It has been claimed that Likert's name "is among the most mispronounced in [the] field."[7] Although many people use the long "i" variant ('lie-kurt'), those who attempt to stay true to Dr. Likert's pronunciation use the short "i" pronunciation ('lick-urt').

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Likert scale is commonly used in survey research. It is often used to measure respondents' attitudes by asking the extent to which they agree or disagree with a particular question or statement. A typical scale might be "strongly agree, agree, not sure/undecided, disagree, strongly disagree." On the surface, survey data using the Likert scale may seem easy to analyze, but there are important issues for a data analyst to consider.

Instructions

1. Get your data ready for analysis by coding the responses. For example, let's say you have a survey that asks respondents whether they agree or disagree with a set of positions in a political party's platform. Each position is one survey question, and the scale uses the following responses: Strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, strongly disagree. In this example, we'll code the responses accordingly: Strongly disagree = 1, disagree = 2, neutral = 3, agree = 4, strongly agree = 5.

2. Remember to differentiate between ordinal and interval data, as the two types require different analytical approaches. If the data are ordinal, we can say that one score is higher than another. We cannot say how much higher, as we can with interval data, which tell you the distance between two points. Here is the pitfall with the Likert scale: many researchers will treat it as an interval scale. This assumes that the differences between each response are equal in distance. The truth is that the Likert scale does not tell us that. In our example here, it only tells us that the people with higher-numbered responses are more in agreement with the party's positions than those with the lower-numbered responses.

3. Begin analyzing your Likert scale data with descriptive statistics. Although it may be tempting, resist the urge to take the numeric responses and compute a mean. Adding a response of "strongly agree" (5) to two responses of "disagree" (2) would give us a mean of 4, but what is the significance of that number? Fortunately, there are other measures of central tendency we can use besides the mean. With Likert scale data, the best measure to use is the mode, or the most frequent response. This makes the survey results much easier for the analyst (not to mention the audience for your presentation or report) to interpret. You also can display the distribution of responses (percentages that agree, disagree, etc.) in a graphic, such as a bar chart, with one bar for each response category.

4. Proceed next to inferential techniques, which test hypotheses posed by researchers. There are many approaches available, and the best one depends on the nature of your study and the questions you are trying to answer. A popular approach is to analyze responses using analysis of variance techniques, such as the Mann Whitney or Kruskal Wallis test. Suppose in our example we wanted to analyze responses to questions on foreign policy positions with ethnicity as the independent variable. Let's say our data includes responses from Anglo, African-American, and Hispanic respondents, so we could analyze responses among the three groups of respondents using the Kruskal Wallis test of variance.

5. Simplify your survey data further by combining the four response categories (e.g., strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree) into two nominal categories, such as agree/disagree, accept/reject, etc.). This offers other analysis possibilities. The chi square test is one approach for analyzing the data in this way.

Read more: How to Use the Likert Scale in Statistical Analysis | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/how_4855078_use-likert-scale-statistical-analysis.html#ixzz1LGrJsRUS

Opinion:

There's a huge debate ongoing in the social / behavioral sciences over whether Likert scales should be treated as ordinal or interval.

Count me as one who thinks it's OK to treat them as interval.

I would analyze the data both ways - with chi-square and with ANOVA, and see how it turns out - if the outcomes are the same, you're all set. If you get something different with each method, then you have something interesting...

Overall, you can treat the scales as interval and run methods that compare means, such as ANOVA. The scales are close enough to interval so that these methods shouldn't lead you astray.

Yes, Tukey would be fine for a post-hoc test. It's "middle-of-the-road" in terms of liberal/conservative (Fisher's LSD is liberal, Bonferroni is conservative).

In terms of how you would use chi-square, you could set up a comparison between the groups you want to contrast, and do the analysis on the frequency of each choice, between the groups (i.e., did one group choose "agree" more often than another group). Yes, it would be a chi-square test of independence. The contingency table could be set up with groups as rows, and scale items as 8 columns. The cells of the table would contain the response frequencies.

For chi-square post-hoc, use a simple comparison of two independent proportions with a z test.

You wouldn't necessarily report means with a chi-square analysis, since your interest is in comparing frequencies, but that's not to say you wouldn't do some sort of basic descriptive statistics comparison (means, medians, std dev, etc.)

## 66 komentar:

Very Nice, I got a great help from it

Thanks

So glad we can help..:)

Hi, can you please be so kind and explain how I can group several Likert items into one scale? I am hvg problems doing so in SPSS. Else, can you point me to a guide where I can find instructions? I have four items (questions) on a Likert scale and I would like to group them together as one so that I can measure this against another group of Likert items

Quick question (I hope). I have data from a self administered questionnaire that used a 7-point Likert scale. I have a few instances where respondents have scored midway between two points on a scale by circling two numbers, eg. 5 and 6. How do people treat such data?

@Wandefullest: if you mean grouping few items into one item, then you can use factor analysis. Please explain us more what you're doing, so we could help you more..:)

@Mark: Seems some of your respondents didn't really catch that it should be singular, lol, kiddin. Well treat them as interval, then make it as 5.5, simple. :)

which test is used to know the relation between employee satisfaction and welfare measures

Hi, I am profiling the individual respondents personality traits using likert type instruments. Am i right to identify the dominant trait of the respondents based on the mode of the respondents? or How should I do it?

International scale supply is an online retailer offering Quality scales that have been tested in the real world, Dependable, Durable, and Down Right Accurate Scales are all we sale!

Thanks for giving me information about weighing scales. Your blog is very appreciate and helpful. Healthgenie is an online shopping store and it provides wide ranges of personal care, elderly care, baby care, beauty, nutrition, diabetes, wellness and homecare. This article mainly deals about the utility of Weighing scale.

Nice blog!!! Thanks for sharing this. Essae-Teraoka Ltd has been a Weighing scale industry leader for over 40 years. At Essae-Teraoka we manufacture and supplying scales and Bar Code Scale for almost every application ranging from truck scales, Counting scales, bench scales, and cranes scales to laboratory and analytical balances.

Bar Code Scale

Hello,I am using a questionnaire with a likert scale of 1 to 5. I want to analyse it using Chi-square because that is the method most preferred by the supervisor. But my respondents is only 22 out of the 28 IFIs in Malaysia. So please help me with how I can apply chi-square to it. Please help.

wah artikelnya bagus , terima kasih informasinya mas...

oya sebelumnya Salam kenal mas ..

saya sutopo dari blogger jogja pendiri kursus seo online,tapi bukan pakar seo saya juga masih tahap belajar seo

mkasih

Hello,

I have been greatly helped by your blog. I had done an analysis presentation for a friend using bar graphs to represent the likert scale. Someone who saw the output thought it a joke, and when my friend mentioned it, i was almost certain i had erred. That was till i read your blog in search of the truth.

Thank you soo much for taking the time to write what you did..

aj

Is it possible to conduct a chi-squared test on 5point likert scale questionnaire. If it is possible mentioned the procedure.Your early response is appreciated. Thank you

Great job you done, keep posting more information. I will share your link with my friends.

Statistical Data analysis

Great and nice article... I really appreciate the effort of the writer. And for those who are looking for scales here is the website that has a variety of company and suppliers that offers different kind of these products http://www.thegreenbook.com/products/scales/

i have data from a likert scale from 300 respondent. my topic is on problems of political renewal. what kind of tests can i run from the data

Very Nice, thanks Mr.

http://duduul.com

very nice mister

artikel ini sangat informatif,

makasi..

Best regard,

Razi.

Cara membuat aplikasi menggunakan JavaScript

Dear all,

I would thank you for this article but I still feel stuck. I have all data on SPSS, I used mean and SD for scale questions but they fail to answer my research questions. I find the ways in this articles interesting but I dont know which one works for me and how to apply it on spss..

I hope one of you could help, I can send a sample of my tables..

Thanks in advance

Warda

"Thanks for the informative post. Hadn’t thought of using this resource before. I look forward to using this in the future for my blog Eviction Expert"

nice article

Thanks for your information. I really like this

Very nice blog post. I absolutely appreciate this website. keep up it.

Thanks

statistical data analysis

Hey, very nice site. I came across this on Google, and I am stoked that I did. I will definitely be coming back here more often. Wish I could add to the conversation and bring a bit more to the table, but am just taking in as much info as I can at the moment. Thanks for sharing.

Weight Scale

Keep Posting:)

Hi, I am profiling the individual respondents psycho graphic segments(business motivation,adopt to new practices,attitude driver,next generation plans) using likert type instruments. Am i right to identify the innovators through this field data collection? or How should I do it?

calculate mean on a likert type scale

calculate mean on a likert type scale

I like this articel..

Btw, can u visit my articel too, The Jembatan Suramadu. Thanks

Thanks for your information. I really like this

santai saja

Very Good Article I think, Thanks :)

Budidaya Belut

Thanks Mister !

Ciri ciri pantun

Unsur intrinsik dan ekstrinsik cerpen

nice information sir.

contoh pantun teka-teki

kapal nabi nuh

Very nice post, impressive. its quite different from other posts. Thanks for sharing.

buy weighing scale online

Well researched article. I like the balance in arguments for and against using data from Likert items as ratio or interval measurements. I agree with you on your conclusion in favour of interval data. I couldn't find how to quote the article though. Thanks.

Yes, you right sir !

Perbedaan Internet dan Intranet

Good posting and very nice article, this site give me interesting information. Jasa

Thanks for your article, so inspirational

hewan peliharaan

Hi, my data includes students' grades (X, XII and college) and their responses for different factors like study habits, personality traits etc on 5-point scale (5 – Always, 4 – Often, 3 – Sometimes, 2 – Rarely, 1 – Never)

1. Should I consider median for each question and then compare it for male and female group by using chi-square test?

2. How can I measure the effect of these factors on students grads?

Please help. I am stuck ...

Really nice article, thank you. :D

Gizikita

Thanks for a really good summary of the uses of blogs.

Tally Sales

amazing...

i like your article

tanks

informatif, inspiratif, nice article..

thangkyu for your nice article.

satujam

Thanks for sharing, This is very informative post which will help me to Startup my Small Business And this could be my turning point.

im trying to analyse the factors behind brandwitching using a factor analysis. i am lost on how i should do it since my data is in form of a 5 pont likert scale

The facts are quite amazing and the best way to explain data is excellent. The statistical analysis of survey data must be write in particular way.

This is great blog keep it up. Thanks for sharing.

Accounts Data Entry

keajaiban dunia piramida

keajaiban dunia koloseum

keajaiban dunia lubang hitam

keajaiban dunia patung zeus

keajaiban dunia alexandria

keajaiban dunia

keajaiban dunia piramida

keajaiban dunia candi borobudur

keajaiban dunia modern

keajaiban dunia tembok cina

keajaiban dunia pulau komodo

keajaiban dunia menara pisa

keajaiban dunia machu picchu

keajaiban dunia

keajaiban dunia

keajaiban dunia taj mahal

keajaiban dunia

keajaiban dunia

keajaiban dunia

keajaiban dunia

keajaiban dunia

Konveksi Kaos Jakarta

Hi, please I am really confused on how I can analyse my likert scale items in this sense-

I have a 5-point likert scale (Strongly disagree = 1, disagree = 2, neutral = 3, agree = 4, strongly agree = 5) and have some respondents selecting undecided. When analyzing, should I just throw away the neutral responses and analyse with Strongly disagree = 1, disagree = 2, agree = 3, strongly agree = 4? Thanks for much anticipated guidance.

Nice article. I think it is useful and unique article. I really love this kind of article and this kind of blog. I liked it and enjoyed reading it. Keep sharing such important posts.

Side wheel attachment manufacturers

Side Wheel Attachment Kit

Keep Posting:)

Handicappedproduct are very useful most especially to those who are handicapped and physically disabled because it helps them do the things that they want and makes their lives easier and bearable. Thanks for the post.

Handicap 3 wheel scooter

3 wheel handicapped bikes

3 wheel motorcycle

Three Wheel Motorcycle

Three Wheeler For Handicapped

Three Wheeled Scooter For Handicapped

Handicapped Two Wheeler

Mobility Products For Handicapped

Scooter For Handicapped Person

honda activa 3 wheeler

Keep Posting:)

Thanks for sharing, This is very informative post which will help me to Startup my Small Business (

BuzzInc) And this could be my turning point.

how does a 3-item 7-point Likert scale work

I really appreciated your post, This would really provide the great information. Thanks for the post.

Handicap Tricycle Price

Deluxe Tricycle Single Handle

Keep Posting:)

Hey, very nice site. I came across this on Google, and I am stoked that I did. I will definitely be coming back here more often. Wish I could add to the conversation and bring a bit more to the table, but am just taking in as much info as I can at the moment. Thanks for sharing.

Handicap Tricycle for Sale

Keep Posting:)

Hey, very nice site. I came across this on Google, and I am stoked that I did. I will definitely be coming back here more often. Wish I could add to the conversation and bring a bit more to the table, but am just taking in as much info as I can at the moment. Thanks for sharing.

Side Wheel Attachment Kit

Keep Posting:)

Thank you for sharing

wow,, syahdu sekali..

thanks for all,, so informative

Harga iPhone

Harga Hp

Harga Hp

Harga iPhone

Harga Hp

Wow, what a great site, all of the posts are so informative for people with disabilities. I liked it! I also have a blog/site about that covers wheelchair related stuff. Please feel free to visit. Thanks for sharing.

E Throne Folding Wheelchair

Electric Scooter India

Keep Posting:)

## Poskan Komentar